In Italy, the Futurists approached the changing musical aesthetic from a different angle.
A major thrust of the Futurist philosophy was to value "noise," and to place artistic and expressive value on sounds that had previously not been considered even remotely musical.
Balilla Pratella's "Technical Manifesto of Futurist Music" (1911) states that their credo is: "To present the musical soul of the masses, of the great factories, of the railways, of the transatlantic liners, of the battleships, of the automobiles and airplanes.
To add to the great central themes of the musical poem the domain of the machine and the victorious kingdom of Electricity."
On 11 March 1913, futurist Luigi Russolo published his manifesto "The Art of Noises".
In 1914, he held the first "art-of-noises" concert in Milan on April 21.
This used his Intonarumori, described by Russolo as "acoustical noise-instruments, whose sounds (howls, roars, shuffles, gurgles, etc.) were hand-activated and projected by horns and megaphones."
In June, similar concerts were held in Paris.